19th Annual Smithsonian Magazine Photo Contest Altered Images
Praying NDN

The Term "Praying Indian": is a 17th-century term referring to Native Americans of New England, New York, Ontario, and Quebec who converted to Christianity either voluntarily or involuntarily. In this Photo Standing Bear (Benjamin Arkeketa) is holding chapter 1 peyote chief that has been passed down since the Native American Church was established in Oklahoma. This Peyote Chief is over 100 years old. The original property was located in Calumet Oklahoma. Chapter 1 was Incorporated in 1918.

Photo Detail
Date Taken: 12.2020
Date Uploaded: 11.2021
Photo Location: West Orange, New Jersey, United States of America
Camera: Canon EOS 6D
Copyright: © Benjamin West